‘Mark Rutherford‘ was the pseudonym of William Hale White (1831-1913). Rutherford is generally classed as a minor Victorian novelist, and noted for his depiction of provincial dissenting life, and of the ’loss of faith’ of the Victorian period. Despite working for over thirty years as a civil servant, he wrote over a thousand newspaper articles, translated works by Spinoza, and wrote various works of literary criticism.
Classic work: Considered a minor Victorian classic, The Autobiography of Mark Rutherford (1881) and sequel Mark Rutherford’s Deliverance (1885) are autobiographical fictions describing White’s progress from Protestant Christianity to a form of Wordsworthian pantheism.
New readers might like to start with The Revolution in Tanner’s Lane (1887) or Clara Hopgood (1896)
Biography: The most comprehensive is Mark Rutherford, a biography of William Hale White by Catherine MacDonald Maclean. 1955, the most recent literary one is Bedford’s Victorian Pilgrim, William Hale White in Context by Michael Brealey, 2012.
The Mark Rutherford Society is hosted on The Mark Rutherford Resource.
Buy the Books: All can be found free digitally on the Gutenberg Project. Also, second hand bookshops, online book stores and some libraries. Beware American print on demand.